- Category: MU
- Published: 14 July 2014
Sudan officially the Republic of the Sudan is an Arab republic in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. The Nile River divides the country into eastern and western halves. Its predominant religion is Islam.
Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations. Kingdoms such as; Kingdom of Kush, Kerma, Nobatia, Alodia, Makuria, Meroë and others flourished in Sudan along the Nile River. During the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC. By virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East inasmuch as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 7th. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language (earliest records dating to the 9th century). During Classical Antiquity, today Sudan was known as Ethiopia.
Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa (after Algeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and also the third largest country in the Arab world (after Algeria and Saudi Arabia).
Sudan is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement, as well as an observer in the World Trade Organization. Its capital is Khartoum, the political, cultural and commercial centre of the nation. It is a federal presidential representative democratic republic. The politics of Sudan is regulated by a parliamentary organization called the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law.
Sudan suffers from several challenges. For much of Sudan's history, the nation has suffered from rampant ethnic strife and has been plagued by internal conflicts including two civil wars and the War in the Darfur region. Sudan suffers from poor human rights most particularly dealing with the issues of ethnic cleansing and slavery in the nation.
Main article: History of Sudan
By the eighth millennium BC, people of a Neolithic culture had settled into a sedentary way of life there in fortified mud-brick villages, where they supplemented hunting and fishing on the Nile with grain gathering and cattle herding. During the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the next centuries become the Kingdom of Kush (with the capital at Kerma) at 1700 BC.
Anthropological and archaeological research indicate that during the predynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were ethnically, and culturally nearly identical, and thus, simultaneously evolved systems of pharaonic kingship by 3300 BC.
Khartoum is the capital city of the Sudan, the largest African country. Our cosmopolitan city's range if historic attractions, museums, free annual events, and tourist services is unrivalled by any other Sudanese city.
This visitor map was designed to help you get around the nation's capital with ease, and to acquaint you with many outstanding sites the city has to offer. Major attractions, transportation system around the city and main roads across the city are noted in the map.
We wish you a pleasant stay in the nation's capital, and hope that you will visit again in the future.
Khartoum town lies along the left bank of the Blue Nile, and forms a huge triangle. Its vertex at the confluence of then two Niles, the White Nile on its west side and the Blue Nile on its east and the base bordering Gezira State some 30 K. southward. It is situated on latitude 15 36 N, and longitude 31 32 E, and it is 1352 ft. above sea level. Its population has grown to over 5 million people. Khartoum, together with the two cities, Omdurman and Khartoum North (Bahri), these cities jointly called the tri-capital, constitute the National Capital of the republic of Sudan.
Climate of Khartoum
The climate is mainly tropical. During summer (March - June), the temperature is quite high, with an average temperature of 38 C, with May as being the hottest month of the year. Autumn starts from mid-July and ends on September, with a total rainfall of 167 mm; it is characterized by abundance of sandstorms. Winter starts on October and lasts up to March, it is endowed with a beautiful to moderate, dry and healthy weather, the average temperature in Winter is 24 C, the ideal time for foreigners to visit Khartoum and enjoy its tourism activities
Places to visit in Khartoum
Khartoum Mogran, (confluence of the two Niles) is an outstanding natural attraction to its lovers from all over the globe. The area is famed for migratory birds, frolic flowers and various restaurants as well as a family park.
Khartoum is home to several museums, including the Sudan National Museum, The National Museum for Ethnography, Natural History Museum, and the Khalifah House Museum, plus others. They are the must places to visit, as they serve as one stop venues for finding out about the people, culture and history of the largest county in Africa.
The Mahdi's Tomb
It is located at Omdurman and encompasses and encompasses an important part of the country's heritage during the Mahdist Era.
This ancient Souq exhibits all types of handicrafts, artifacts, souvenirs and various items of Sudanese folk memorabilia. The market is usually open from 8:00 a.m. and closes at sunset.
Sheikh Hamad-el-Niles Tomb
On the western side of Omdurman on Fridays, many dervishes congregate dancing their famous and well-known rites and songs. The practice exemplifies tradition of Sufi in the Sudan.
It lies just off shore of the Abu Raouf quarter of Omdurman, on the western side of the Nile, where we can see the manufacturing of traditional boats, the way it have been done for centuries.
However, the above are not the only to be seen. Khartoum is rich with other attractions that are really breath taking. Among them we may include: - Nuba wrestling, the Camel Market, Abd-el-Qayum Gate, the Nile's Islands, the WWII cemeteries, the church of St. Matthew, king Farouqe's mosque, Sayyid Ali's mosque, the Republican Palace, the Botanical Gardens, west Omdurman's desert and Jebel Awlia, etc.
Hotels are found mainly in Khartoum, and are found in all categories. They are well equipped to extend their services from 5 stars grade and down to 2 stars. The majority of these hotels are located in Khartoum. There are plenty of available rooms at all classes throughout the year.
Although the water in hotels and camps in Khartoum is generally suitable for drinking, we advise our visitors to drink mineral water as a precaution for their health - mineral water is now found almost every where a visitor goes to.
Most types of meals and internationally known dishes are available in Khartoum. All sorts of fresh meats (chicken, beef, lamb and fish) are slaughtered or caught daily. Fresh vegetables (picked daily) are plentiful. Fruit is from local sources. There are a variety of canned and packaged goods. Hotels and restaurants serve mostly standard fare of both the Sudanese and international types.
Light cotton clothing is advisable for Khartoum during the summer days. During the winter days, a pullover is usually sufficient as additional wear. During winter evenings and early mornings, heavier clothing may be necessary. Generally speaking, a layered style wardrobe works best.
A foreigner intending to visit KRT could obtain an entry visa from the Sudanese diplomatic missions abroad, or he could get one at KRT International Airport with a prior arrangement with the Ministry of Foreign Relations, if there is no mission in his/her country.
Vaccination against smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid and cholera may be compulsory for foreigners upon entry. Prophylactics against malaria are advised.
All personal belongings are customs free, with an allowance of 200 r less cigarettes or ¼ ounce of tobacco. As for electrical or electronic equipment and firearms, dues are taken for these items while subject to refund if they are re-exported within 6 months period from the date of their entry.
The official local unit of a currency is the Sudanese Pounds.
- As for foreign currency, there is no limit to the amount currency that could be admitted in Sudan. Declaring these amounts on the port en entry to the authorities is a must to ensure the right of the visitor to take back any amount of foreign currency not exceeding the declared amount.
- Since the prices of foreign currencies in Sudan are subject to frequent changes, visitors are advised to know these prices before coming to Sudan.
- Credit cards are not acceptable in most places except some of the International Hotels and Airlines.
Greenwich +3 summer timing, Greenwich +2 winter timing.
200 Volts (220) 50Hz.
Official and working hours
Government offices are open from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Banks are open from 8 a.m. to noon. Friday is the official weekly holiday.
Arabic is the official language. English is widely spoken (in most hotels and official offices).
Islam is the official religion of the majority with Christianity having a special place.
There are several means of transport inside Khartoum. The most common transport is the "hafla" or minibus. Similar to the minibus are flat bed conversions that resemble minibuses. There are also some new microbuses that are quite comfortable, as well as taxi, and "rickshaws" services.
Ali Dinar Museum
The museum is situated in El fasher Town in northern Darfur State in the west of Sudan. It accommodates an impressive collection of archaeological items that traces the region history since ancient tomes. Special attention is given to Sultan Ali Dinar"s outlandish belonging and household.
National History Museum
This museum is located on the Gama:A Street, opposite to the main building of the University of Khartoum. It was established during the second decade of this century and is relegated to the Faculty of Science. The museum demonstrates interesting and unique species of animals and birds found in Sudan. A collection of mummified reptiles; birds and animals are also exhibited.
This museum is located in Elobeid Town in northern Kordofan State. The name Sheikan is Derived from a site near Elobeid, where the Mahdist forces vanquished a large British force at a battle in 1880.
The museum was initiated in 1965 and holds a substantial number of historic and ethnographic elements that reflect the various stages of Kordofan history. Moreover, the museum exhibits archaeological artifacts from early Stone Age (Paleolithic) to the Funj Islamic era (1505-1820). The museum also displays some interesting relics and items from the Sheikan battle.
Sudan's Ethnographic Museum
The museum was established in 1956 and is situated at the junction of Gam"a Street and ElMek Nimir Street. It enfolds a spectacular collection of material culture of various Sudanese tribes and peoples. This rich heritage of agricultural and nomadic appliances, domestic tools, ceremonial paraphernalia and utilities are artistically exhibited and Knowingly demonstrated.
Sudan's National Museum
This museum can be regarded as Sudan's main custodian of the country's historical heritage, for is where all of the collected ancient cultural material of Sudan is documented, kept and displayed for the benefit of all visitors.
Sudan's National Museum was established in 1971 at an attractive site on the Nile Avenue, overlooking the Blue Nile and not from its confluence with the White Nile. The museum consists of two main sections: The first is an outdoor garden of lush greenery, transgressed by a water channel symbolizing the Nile. Here, the monuments and temples of Napatan and Christian eras were reconstructed after their rescue from the flood caused by the construction of the Aswan Dam in the sixties.
The second section is comprised of a two-story building, which accommodates a huge collection of rare archaeological artifacts. This covers all stages and epochs of Sudanese civilizations, from the early Paleolithic period through Napatan, Meroetic, Christian and Islamic areas. Of particular interest to visitors is the rare collection of artifacts belonging to the Kerma civilization (2500-1800 BC).
The Khalifa House Museum
This was the residence of the Khalifa Abdullah Ben Mohamed, who succeeded the Mahdi. The ground floor of the residence was built in 1888 and the upper floor in 1891. It became a museum in 1928. The structure of the residence itself is of great historical importance, since it exhibits the style and architecture prevailing at that period. The vast collection of artifacts displayed inside the two-story museum covers almost the entire Mahdiya rule, apart from a collection of personal belongings of the Khalifa, such as utensils, beds, swords, spears and various other elements of everyday use.